Bio1152 Chapter 29 Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land
  1. Land plants ( kingdom          ) are a diverse group that evolved from        algae, and are most closely related to the              .

  2. Four innovations among the kingdom Plantae are:
    • Alternation of              , with multicellular, dependent          .

    • Walled spores produced in            .

    • Multicellular             which produce gametes.

    • Apical            in root and shoot systems.

  3. Bryophytes lack           tissue with three phyla of small herbaceous plants.

    • The large               produce gametes which fuse to yield small              .

    • Sporophytes produce haploid         which grow to become the               .

    • Male gametes are flagellated        that       short distances to fertilize the egg.
  4. Vascular plants possess specialized vascular tissues called        and         .

  5. Seedless vascular plants have life cycles with dominant              and form two phyla.

    • Lycophyta includes       mosses,        mosses, and             .

    • Pterophyta includes        ,             , and        ferns and their relatives.

  6. Seedless vascular plants grew to great heights during the                period and may have led to global cooling.

Bio1152 Chapter 30 Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants
  1. Seed plants continued the evolution of smaller               in the              of generations.

  2. Gymnosperms ( conifers ) bear "naked"        , typically on        , and include four phyla: Cycadophyta, Gingkophyta, Gnetophyta, and Coniferophyta.

  3. The gymnosperm life cycle shows a dominant             generation,         grains transferring        to ovules, and the development of        from fertilized         .

    • Megaspores develop into         which contain female gametophytes. Microspores develop into         grains which contain male gametophytes.

    • When a pollen grain is transferred to the part of a plant containing the         , it can germinate and discharge        into the female gametophyte within the ovule.

    • This process of                is called              and results in a       containing a sporophyte         .

    • The pollen eliminates the need to swim through water and allows for wide            by       .
  4. Angiosperms are seed plants that possess reproductive structures called          and         .
    • A flower is a specialized        with modified leaves.

    • A Fruit typically consists of a mature        with seeds. Fruits are adapted for seed            by       ,        , or animals to new locations.

  5. The angiosperm life cycle includes a         fertilization which produces a food-storing            in addition to the         .

  6. Most angiosperms are           and           , classified by the number of             (seed leaves).