Bio1152 Chapter 34 Vertebrates
  1. Vertebrates possess            , and are a subphylum of phylum           .

  2. Craniates are chordates that have a       .         (hagfishes ) are jawless marine craniates that have            derived from the notochord, but no vertebrae.

  3.              are craniates that have a           , made of vertebrae.

  4.               are vertebrates that have       that evolved from skeletal supports of the pharyngeal clefts.

  5.                 include sharks and rays with a skeleton made of            .

  6.               are the bony fish with a       endoskeleton.

    •                 are ray-finned fishes.

    •                are lobe-finned fishes with more muscular pelvic and pectoral fins and include coelacanths and lungfishes,

  7. Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have       limbs, and evolved from lobe-finned fish whose fins developed into limbs adapted for terrestrial life.

  8.           have moist skin that complements lungs in      exchange, and undergo                from aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult.

    • There are        orders:          are salamanders,        are frogs and toads, and        are caecilians.

  9. Amniotes are            that have an           egg adapted for terrestrial life.

  10. Living reptiles include          ,         ,          ,               , and        .

  11. Mammalia are the only surviving clade of            among the amniotes.

    • Monotremes are the only mammals that lay        .

    • Marsupials are born early and complete embryonic development within a maternal pouch called            .

    • Eutherians are            mammals that complete their embryonic development within a         , joined to the mother by the placenta.

  12. Primates have opposable         adapted for           , and include lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, and hominoids called       .

  13. Hominin originated in          about 6-7 million years ago.                   was an early hominin that walked upright.

    • The earliest species in our genus Homo was Homo          ("handy man"), who made        tools.

    • Homo           was the first fully bipedal, large-brained hominin.

    • Homo          was the first hominin to leave Africa.

    • Homo neanderthalensis became extinct a few thousand years after the arrival of humans (Homo          ).

  14. Homo sapiens are          hominoids with a large        capable of       making, symbolic thought and           .

  15. We appeared in         160,000 years ago.