Bio1152 Chapter 36 Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants
  1. One adaptation of terrestrial plants is the           system which allow some to grow to great heights.

  2. The selective               of a plant cell's         membrane regulates the movement of          into and out of the cell, mediated by transport proteins.
  3. Proton        create a hydrogen ion           , setting up a membrane            that can be harnessed to transport solutes by            or              .

  4. In the aquatic environment of a cell, the effects of          give rise to        potential that affect plant growth and transport.

  5. Intercellular transport involves 3 pathways:                 ,           , and           .

  6. Water and minerals are absorbed through the            of root tips, where root        mycorrhizae increase the surface area.

  7. Photosynthesis results in                , the loss of water vapor through          of leaves. The diameter of the stoma is controlled by        cells.

  8. Transpirational pull in the       together with       pressure produce a pressure differential that draws water from the        into the leaf in a process called       flow.

  9. Sugar is loaded into             elements by             and             pathways.

  10. Sugar loading          water potential and induces water intake at the source, initiating a           flow of sap toward the sink.

    Review: Transport of Xylem Sap.
    Review: Translocation of Phloem Sap.
Bio1152 Chapter 37 Soil and Plant Nutrition
  1. Plants obtain the            nutrients of water, minerals, and carbon dioxide from the environment.

  2. Nine of the essential elements are called                 since they are required in relatively large amounts.

  3. Lack of some minerals can lead to abnormal growth, which can be monitored by        plants.

  4. Soil is composed of weathered       of various sizes, along with decaying organic material called        , arranged in vertical layers called           .

  5. Soil minerals are made available to plants by         exchange and can be depleted by       precipitation.

  6. Nitrogen-         Rhizobium bacteria, in symbiosis with         plants, convert inorganic N2 in the atmosphere to nitrogenous minerals such as          and          that plants can absorb.

  7. Most plants also form              , a symbiotic association of fungi and roots which can be two types.
    • In                  , the mycelium of the fungus forms a dense sheath over the surface of the root.

    • In                  , fungal hyphae extend into the root, forming             .

  8. Unusual nutritional adaptations in plants include:
    •            grow on another plant or other support, absorbing water and minerals from rain.

    •            plants absorb sugars and minerals from their living hosts. Many species have roots that function as            , nutrient-absorbing projections that enter the host plant.

    •              plants are photosynthetic but obtain some           and other minerals by digesting small animals.