Bio1152 Chapter 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange
  1. Aquatic animals have        for gas exchange.

  2. Fishes have a      -chambered heart with single circulation, while amphibians have a        chambered heart with double circulation.

  3. Mammals have a       -chambered heart with double circulation, allowing for an              way of life.

  4. Mammalian double circulation is regulated by         in the heart that direct one-way flow of blood.

  5. The heart contracts and relaxes in a          cycle. The contraction, or pumping, phase is called          ; the relaxation, or filling, phase is called           . Blood           is generated in both phases.

  6. The             (SA) node, or pacemaker, sets the timing of contraction of all cardiac muscle cells.

  7. The heart and lung are major organs of the              system that supplies mammals with oxygen from the atmosphere.

    Exercise: The Human Respiratory System
Bio1152 Chapter 43 The Immune System
  1. Animals have two major kinds of defense against pathogens such as           ,         , or other foreign substances.

    •         immunity is acquired at birth before any exposure to pathogens and involves rapid,              responses.

    •           (adaptive) immunity develops only after exposure to the inducing agent and involves              and             .

  2. Innate immunity:
    • External defenses
      • The                system provides a physical barrier.

      • In the trachea, ciliated             cells sweep mucus and entrapped matter upward, away from lungs.

    • Internal defenses
      • Phagocytes are types of        blood cells which ingest invading microorganisms by               .

      • The            system contains a type of phagocyte called              , as well as              , which carry out defensive actions at        nodes.

      • Local               response is initiated when injured cells release            and other chemicals.

  3. Acquired immunity involves lymphocytes of two types:    and    cells.

    • Lymphocytes circulate through the        and have antigen receptors

      •    cell receptors have two        of chains that bind to specific, intact           .
      •    cell receptors have one        and one       chain, and bind to small fragments of antigens, which in turn bind to      (Major Histocompatibility Complex) proteins involved in nonself recognition.

    •          (antibody-mediated) immunity:
      • In the          immune response, clonal selection of B cells produces short-lived         cells that secrete antibodies and long-lived         cells.

      • In the            immune response,         cells facilitate a faster, more efficient response.

      Humoral immunity summary:
    •        mediated immunity is similar to humoral immunity, but involves the clonal selection of            T cells.
      •         T cells are activated upon exposure to antigens and stimulate            T cells.

      • Cytotoxic T cells attack infected and         cells, and also               tissues by secreting            and other enzymes that destroy the target cell.

      Cell-mediated immunity summary:
    Exercise: Immune Responses.
  4. The ABO blood group is a result of antibodies to nonself           on      blood cells.

  5. Allergies are exaggerated (hypersensitive) responses to antigens called            .

  6. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency        (HIV ), and results in a loss of         T cells.