Bio1152 Chapter 49 Nervous Systems
  1. All animals except sponges have some type of          system.

  2. In vertebrates, the brain and spinal cord make up the          nervous system (CNS), while nerves and ganglia make up the             nervous system (PNS).

  3. The nervous system also contains several types of       cells which provide various support functions.

  4. The spinal cord can mediate           independently of the brain.

  5. The peripheral nervous system transmits information to and from the      and regulates movement and the internal environment.

  6. The brain is organized into several regions:           ,               ,            , and             .

  7. The           is divided into right and left hemispheres as well as four lobes.

  8. The nervous system exhibits neural             : some synapses can be modified after birth, often in response to its own activity.
Bio1152 Chapter 50 Sensory and Motor Mechanisms
  1. Energy from a stimulus is detected at a sensory           , and after               and               in a sensory pathway, produces             of the stimulus in the CNS.

  2. There are several kinds of sensory receptors.
    •                   sense           stimuli such as pressure, touch, and sound.

    •                 detect solutes in a solution or specific molecules such as             .

    •                  receptors detect electromagnetic radiation including           light and            .

  3. In the human ear, vibrating objects create sound waves in the air that are detected by                   in the ear, which are perceived as sound of different pitches.

  4. The               canals in the inner ear function in maintaining equilibrium.

  5. Chemoreceptor cells for            (taste) are modified epithelial cells organized into taste       in the tongue.

  6. Chemoreceptor cells for            (smell) line the upper, mucus portion of the nasal cavity.

  7. Vertebrates eyes focus light by changing the shape of the       .

  8. Signals from rods and cones travel from          cells to           cells, whose axons form the optic        and transmit the signal to the brain.

    Review: Vertebrate eye
  9. Humans have an endoskeleton consisting of bones which are connected at         by            , and to muscles at          .

  10. Skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton in               pairs.