Bio1152 Chapter 54 Community Ecology
  1. A            is a collection of              of various species that interact.

  2. Interspecific              for limited            results in each species occupying a unique ecological        in the community due to competitive            .

  3. Similar species can coexist in a community if they occupy different         by resource               .

  4. Competition may result in character               , where certain characteristics exhibit more divergence between            populations of two species than between             populations of the same two species.

  5. Predation occurs when the           kills and eats the prey.

  6.            is an interspecific relationship where two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another.
    • Parasitism is a relationship where the           , benefits by harming its       .
    •            benefit both species.

    •               benefits one species while the other is not affected.

  7. The species            of a community can be quantified by two measures: species           and relative            .

  8. The feeding relationships in a community make up its          structure; its organisms often form a complex food      .

  9. The diversity of some communities may depend on one           species.

  10. Some organisms act as             species by causing physical changes in the environment; some can act as               of biodiversity in the community.

  11. Natural communities often experience periodic               and undergo changes in diversity in a process called ecological             .

  12. Species richness in many communities is affected by climatic factors such as              and           , which can be measured by evapotranspiration, as well as       of the ecosystem.

  13. The diversity of isolated ecosystems can be predicted by the island               model.
Bio1152 Chapter 55 Ecosystems
  1. An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a            , and all the abiotic factors with which they interact.

  2. Energy        through ecosystems, while matter         within them.

  3. Energy entering an ecosystem is converted to           energy by primary            , and can be quantified by productivity.

  4.            production can be represented in a pyramid of             .

  5. In most ecosystems, this low trophic efficiency is also reflected in a pyramid of          .

  6. Chemicals released by humans can become               in successive trophic levels in a process called             magnification, becoming toxic to higher level consumers.

  7. The chemical nutrients        between          and            reservoirs of ecosystems

    • The        cycle is driven by solar energy on a global scale.

    • The         cycle reflects the reciprocal processes of                 and cellular              .

    • The           cycle involves local cycles between organisms and soil or water.

    • The             cycle is relatively localized.

  8. Excess fertilizer added to the soil can runoff into streams, and together with         discharge, can lead to                 , excessive algal growth in aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Burning fossil fuels releases excess levels of carbon          into the atmosphere, which is associated with global          due to the             effect.

  10. Combustion of fossil fuels also releases excess         into the atmosphere, causing       precipitation.

  11. The release of                      ( CFCs ) has resulted in        depletion.