Chapter 29 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 5: The Evolutionary History of Diversity Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land Review
  1. Land plants ( kingdom ) are a diverse group that evolved from algae, and are most closely related to the .
  2. Four innovations among the kingdom Plantae are:
  3. Bryophytes lack tissue with three phyla of small herbaceous plants.
    • The large produce gametes which fuse to yield small .
    • Sporophytes produce haploid which grow to become the .
    • Male gametes are flagellated that short distances to fertilize the egg.
  4. Vascular plants possess specialized vascular tissues called and .
  5. Seedless vascular plants have life cycles with dominant and form two phyla.
    • Lycophyta includes mosses, mosses, and .
    • Pterophyta includes , , and ferns and their relatives.
  6. Seedless vascular plants grew to great heights during the period and may have led to global cooling.

Chapter 30 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 5: The Evolutionary History of Diversity Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants Review
  1. Seed plants continued the evolution of smaller in the of generations.
  2. Gymnosperms ( conifers ) bear "naked" , typically on , and include four phyla: Cycadophyta, Gingkophyta, Gnetophyta, and Coniferophyta.
  3. The gymnosperm life cycle shows a dominant generation, grains transferring to ovules, and the development of from fertilized .
    • Megaspores develop into which contain female gametophytes. Microspores develop into grains which contain male gametophytes.
    • When a pollen grain is transferred to the part of a plant containing the , it can germinate and discharge into the female gametophyte within the ovule.
    • This process of is called and results in a containing a sporophyte .
    • The pollen eliminates the need to swim through water and allows for wide by .
  4. Angiosperms are seed plants that possess reproductive structures called and .
    • A flower is a specialized with modified leaves.
    • A Fruit typically consists of a mature with seeds. Fruits are adapted for seed by , , or animals to new locations.
  5. The angiosperm life cycle includes a fertilization which produces a food-storing in addition to the .
  6. Most angiosperms are and , classified by the number of (seed leaves).
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