Chapter 42 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 7: Animal Form and Function Circulation and Gas Exchange Review
  1. Aquatic animals have for gas exchange.
  2. Fishes have a -chambered heart with single circulation, while amphibians have a chambered heart with double circulation.
  3. Mammals have a -chambered heart with double circulation, allowing for an way of life.
  4. Mammalian double circulation is regulated by in the heart that direct one-way flow of blood.
  5. The heart contracts and relaxes in a cycle. The contraction, or pumping, phase is called ; the relaxation, or filling, phase is called . Blood is generated in both phases.
  6. The (SA) node, or pacemaker, sets the timing of contraction of all cardiac muscle cells.
  7. The heart and lung are major organs of the system that supplies mammals with oxygen from the atmosphere.
    Exercise: The Human Respiratory System

Chapter 43 Animations   Study Guide

Unit 7: Animal Form and Function The Immune System Review
  1. Animals have two major kinds of defense against pathogens such as , , or other foreign substances.
    • immunity is acquired at birth before any exposure to pathogens and involves rapid, responses.
    • (adaptive) immunity develops only after exposure to the inducing agent and involves and .
  2. Innate immunity:
    • External defenses
      • The system provides a physical barrier.
      • In the trachea, ciliated cells sweep mucus and entrapped matter upward, away from lungs.
    • Internal defenses
      • Phagocytes are types of blood cells which ingest invading microorganisms by .
      • The system contains a type of phagocyte called , as well as , which carry out defensive actions at nodes.
      • Local response is initiated when injured cells release and other chemicals.
  3. Acquired immunity involves lymphocytes of two types: and cells.
    • Lymphocytes circulate through the and have antigen receptors
      • cell receptors have two of chains that bind to specific, intact .
      • cell receptors have one and one chain, and bind to small fragments of antigens, which in turn bind to (Major Histocompatibility Complex) proteins involved in nonself recognition.
    • (antibody-mediated) immunity:
      • In the immune response, clonal selection of B cells produces short-lived cells that secrete antibodies and long-lived cells.
      • In the immune response, cells facilitate a faster, more efficient response.
      Humoral immunity summary:
    • mediated immunity is similar to humoral immunity, but involves the clonal selection of T cells.
      • T cells are activated upon exposure to antigens and stimulate T cells.
      • Cytotoxic T cells attack infected and cells, and also tissues by secreting and other enzymes that destroy the target cell.
      Cell-mediated immunity summary:
    Exercise: Immune Responses.
  4. The ABO blood group is a result of antibodies to nonself on blood cells.
  5. Allergies are exaggerated (hypersensitive) responses to antigens called .
  6. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency (HIV ), and results in a loss of T cells.
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